Glaciers are formed by years of snow, which is compressed, re-approached and re-frozen into ice. Glaciers have certain levels and forms. Under the action of gravity and pressure, glacier itself will move on the one hand, and on the other hand, in the process of glacier movement, it will produce external forces such as erosion, transportation, deposition and so on on the ground surface. Glaciation is an important form of external force.
To form a glacier, you have to have a certain amount of solid precipitation, which is snow; Second, it is only when the annual accumulation of snow is greater than the annual melting volume that the snow will accumulate and eventually form a glacier. So, depending on the conditions in which glaciers are formed, it depends on the local temperature conditions, so the main place where glaciers are distributed around the world is in high latitudes or high altitudes.
Generally speaking, we can divide glaciers into two categories. One is the continental glacier. Currently, the global glacier covers an area of about 1600 square kilometers, most of which are continental glaciers, mainly distributed in Antarctica, the arctic ocean and Greenland. The other type is mountain glacier, mainly distributed in the global high mountains, because of the high altitude and low temperature, and there are glaciers, these glaciers due to the effect of gravity, tend to slide down the valley, forming a ribbon glacier, also can be called glaciers.
Of course, in the polar regions, there are huge glaciers, and if we take the polar regions apart, if we look at the rest of the world, the tasman glacier in Oceania, New Zealand, is the longest glacier, at 28 kilometers. New Zealand is an island country located in Oceania. The main islands are north island and south island. New Zealand is located between 34° south latitude and 47° south latitude.
Due to the death of New Zealand is located in the plate boundary, due to the collision of the Pacific plate and the Indian Ocean plate extrusion effect, the earth’s crust uplift, makes the New Zealand is given priority to with mountainous, hilly terrain, especially in New Zealand’s south island more steep terrain, which is located in the south island of mount cook is the highest mountain in New Zealand, altitude 3754 meters, the glacier near the top of the mountain there is a lot of distribution.
Mount cook is located in the south Alps, which runs from northeast to southwest and runs through the south island of New Zealand. Mount cook is located in the central part of the mountains and stretches for hundreds of kilometers. It is located between latitude 42° and 44° south. The tasman glacier snakes down from the top of mount cook, measuring more than 28km in length and about 4km in width. It can be up to 600m thick and more than 3,000m above sea level.
Due to gravity, tasman glacier slowly slide to the low altitude, a day of sliding speed is about 23 to 45 cm, in the process of ice slide down, on the surface for the plane at the bottom of the glacier erosion, at the same time on the surface of the glacier formed numerous cracks and ice tower, the modelling is various, glittered in the sun, with a beautiful view.