Thousands of years old, samarkand has countless historical sites. In the center of samarkand, there are three islamic seminaries built between the 15th and 17th centuries AD. The three institutes are the oldest in the islamic world and are almost the national symbol of uzbekistan.
Ulugbek, on the west side, was the original building of regestan, completed in 1420. Ulub was the grandson of timur, the later ruler of the timur empire, and he was also a great astronomer. In the northeast corner of samarkand, there is the observatory of vulubo, which he founded. The main door of the wuerubo seminary and the colorful dome were decorated with various colors of ceramics. After being damaged by the earthquake, a new dome 13 meters high and 13 meters in diameter was built with a special metal structure. It was one of the best Muslim institutions of learning in the 15th century. It is said that wuerube himself taught here, and it was the center of secular scientific thought during his reign.
On the north and east sides of the square are the tilla-kari seminary and the Sher Dor seminary, completed in the seventeenth century under the cybani empire. As a seminary, the front door of hill-dorr depicts a strange lion with a human face, facing each other. This is at odds with Islam, which forbids depictions of living things, so geometric patterns are almost the only decoration in the islamic world. The depiction of living creatures on such a religious building as the seminary is simply unique in the world.
Undoubtedly, the most famous figure of samarkand is still timur the great. He is also a national icon established by uzbekistan’s President, Islam karimov. In the central square of tashkent, tashkent, timur, sculpted into a statue, whipped up his horse and galloped forward as if he were in command. The tomb of timur in samarkand is also a must for visitors. The black-looking mausoleum was built a year before timur’s death, in the middle of the gur-emile complex. The main body of the gur-emile cemetery is an octagonal dome with a tall alcove in the front. The octagonal outer wall has a drum stand about 8 meters high. The bottom of the drum stand supports the inner dome and is about 20 meters high. The upper end of the drum supports the outer dome, which is about 35 meters high. Outer dome shows distinctive rib shape, by two thin bell breast body with drum block off, its outer surface by dense circle on the top edge line composition, the whole body wrapped sky blue glazed brick, color quietly elegant, luminous. The exterior walls of the mausoleum are inlaid with golden and resplendent murals made of agate square bricks. The bottom of the building is decorated with colorful stone masonry. The doors and railings of the mausoleum are exquisitely carved with wood and stone. The whole mausoleum looks magnificent and colorful.
Inside, the tomb is in the shape of a cross. The lower part of the wall is all made of marble, while the upper part is full of blue and green Arabic patterns made of colored bricks and Arabic letters of gold. Beneath the great dome, the walls of the mausoleum were glittering and imposing. A narrow staircase led down to the crypt. The crypt is made of quality brick and stone, with a foundation four meters deep below. In the center of the burial chamber is a spiritual chamber containing nine coffins of timur and his family. On top of the coffin of timur, there is an inscription in Arabic: gul amir timur, son of genghis khan, great leader of the vast region, sleeps here.
Samarkand also has a world-famous building, which is known as one of the three mosques in the world bibihanum mosque. After a long journey across the vast desert, the first thing commercial travelers saw when they arrived in samarkand was the huge structure. The mosque, named after timur’s queen, has two words carved into its entrance: greatness and oneness from the Koran. Legend has it that you can see these two words from miles away. The mosque is also the largest building in central Asia, 140 meters long and 100 meters wide. This mosque was built by tamerlane’s queen during tamerlane’s conquest of India. When tamerlane’s masters returned home, they thought it too small and ordered its reconstruction. The half-built mosque is so often broken down that locals call it “a building that will never be finished.” Indeed, the bibihanum mosque is struggling. Finally, in an earthquake in 1897, bibihanum mosque collapsed. The bibihanum mosque that visitors can now see is a replica of the original.